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Misinformation, Disinformation, Fake News, and Algorithms: Finding Out What’s What

Techniques and Tools for Recognizing False Information

Laterial Reading

“In brief, lateral reading (as opposed to vertical reading) is the act of verifying what you’re reading as you’re reading it.” Terry Heick

Lateral Reading and the Nature of Expertise: Reading Less and Learning More When Evaluating Digital Information, Sam
Wineburg and Sarah McGrew, Stanford University Digital Repository,

This study compares how professional fact checkers, historians, and first year college students evaluated online information and presents the strategies fact checkers used to efficiently and effectively find trustworthy information.

“Expand Your View with Lateral Reading,” News Literacy Project,

Critical Ignoring

“Learning to ignore information is not something taught in school. School teaches the opposite: to read a text thoroughly and closely before rendering judgment….Online, critical ignoring is just as important as critical thinking.”

“To navigate the dangers of the web, you need critical thinking – but also critical ignoring,” Sam Wineburg, The Conversation

SIFT Method

Created by Mike Caulfield and provides four quick moves you can do when evaluating an online source.

Google: About this Result, or What Are those Three Dots?

“Google Introduces ‘About this Result’ Feature for Safer Online Experience,” Digital Information World

“A Quick Way to Learn More about Your Search Results,” Google, The Keyword